In order to determine ways to increase male sex drive and libido it is imperative for you to understand what causes a decline in sex drive and male libido. There could be a variety of reasons ranging from emotional and psychological reasons to physical factors playing with your libido. Emotional and psychological factors have a deep impact on your sexual health. Stress is perhaps the major cause of concern among men facing low libido or erectile dysfunction. Living in a fast pace world extracts it' s price by affecting your sex drive. Depression, anxiety other negative feelings could also be behind your sagging libido.

As far as physical aspect is concerned it is scientifically established that men lose testosterone at 10% a decade after the age of 30 and by the time you are 40 you start feeling the effects of low testosterone.

The key to increasing your sex drive and libido is to increase testosterone levels that get depleted with age. Testosterone enhancement is possible through natural means which include :

A good diet that is rich in proteins and limited in carbohydrates and moderate in essential fats. (Carbohydrates specially those that consist of simple sugars such as potatoes increase insulin and cortisol levels in your blood which affects testosterone production negatively.)

Regular exercise - You must understand that both lack of physical activity and over training can lead to low testosterone levels. The ideal period to workout is 45-60 minutes in a single routine. Any more than that and your body starts producing Cortisol which inhibits and diminishes testosterone production in your body.

Reduced Stress - Stress is one of the major psychological factor affecting your sex drive and testosterone levels besides negative feelings like guilt, anxiety and depression. A relaxed state of mind is highly important for elevating your sex drive.

Good Sleep - A good sleep is going to help you raise your sex drive substantially.

Natural Supplements - Natural supplements like PROVACYL can help you raise your testosterone and sex drive without any side effects. Provacyl is a supplement made from quality ingredients, made to promote your body's natural testosterone production. Because it's a supplement and not a medication, you don't need a prescription and it's free of any side effects. You've undoubtedly heard of how good ginkgo biloba is for you, rejuvenating your blood flow and improving sexual function, or that Brazil's acai fruit is a great antioxidant. These are just a few of the herbal ingredients. On top of these though, Provacyl also combines Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which converts into testosterone and other sex hormones, and Growth Hormone (GH), which has been applauded by medical researchers as the fountain of youth.

So don't just sit back and let old age happen to you. By following a regimen, you can slow down and even reverse aging.

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"I wanted to get rid of a headache."

"I wanted to be nice."

"I wanted to feel closer to God."

"I wanted to change the topic of conversation"

These are some of the reasons researchers found that people engage in sex. Two clinical psychology professors at the University of Texas conducted a study, published in the August issue of the Archives of Sexual Behaviour, to find out people’s top reasons for having sex.

Professors Cindy Meston and David Buss performed their study in two parts. First they asked 444 people, from age 17 to 52, to give "all the reasons you can think of why you, or someone you have known, has engaged in sexual intercourse in the past." This netted them 715 reasons, which they narrowed down (after removing duplicate answers) to 237.

The second part of their study involved surveying about 1,500 undergraduate students to rank the reasons from a scale of 1 to 5 according to how often they had done the deed for that reason. This gave them their ranking system.

Meston told reporters that she and Buss performed the study to challenge existing assumptions and to provide answers for professionals treating people with sexual disorders, or to improve programs for safe sex.

"You need to know why people are having sex if you’re trying to put into place a safe-sex program," said Meston to the press. "If you assume people have sex because they’re in the heat of the moment, then you tell them to carry condoms. But if they’re doing it for revenge or because they want to enhance their social status, that will require a different strategy."

Meston said that she was surprised at the high number of various reasons people gave. Most people, she said, would guess that there are a relatively small number of standard reasons given, i.e. they are in love, want to create a child, are attracted to the other person. But "…we found that people are having sex for lots of other reasons."

Some of them were expected: "I wanted to please my partner," "To celebrate a special occasion," or, "I realized I was in love." And some of the reasons were really strange. Among the more unusual reasons listed in the study were "Because of a bet," "The person offered me drugs," "It was an initiation rite," and the very unpleasant, "To give someone a sexually transmitted disease."

The study’s co-author David Buss, author of the well known "The Evolution of Desire," said to the The New York Times, "I was truly astonished by this richness of sexual psychology."

Keep in mind that the rankings were created by 1,500 college undergraduates. Meston agrees that the subject group may skew the results, and she’d expect different rankings from older people. However, the students only came up with the ranking; the reasons were derived from the first phase of the study, in which the ages of the test group was ranged from 17 to 52.

One aspect of the study that has been surprising (other than some of the reasons themselves) is the fact that there were not many differences in the responses from men and women. Both the top 10 and the bottom 10 reasons given my men and women were very similar. The number one reason given by both sexes was "I was attracted to the person," and eight of the top ten were the same, including, "It’s fun," "To express my love for the person," and "I was horny."

"It refuted a lot of gender stereotypes…that men only want sex for the physical pleasure and women want love," said Meston to reporters. "That’s not what I came up with in my findings." Meston added that there were only slight differences; for example, men were more likely "to be opportunistic towards having sex, so if sex were there and available they would jump on it," (so to speak), "…somewhat more so than women."

Yes, that is actually what she said.

Reaction to the results of the study have been overwhelming—apparently people are very interested in reading about the reasons we have sex. Online bloggers have offered several suggestions for reason #238, including, "To make my husband stop whining," "It keeps my face out of the refrigerator," and my personal favorite, "Uh, you need a reason?"

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Tsunami warnings could reach vulnerable coastlines within minutes, thanks to an early-warning system that gauges how long an earthquake rumbles.

Most tsunami-warning systems work by measuring an undersea earthquake's magnitude, because those above magnitude 7.5 are considered highly likely to generate a tsunami. However, it takes at least 30 minutes to measure this accurately.

Previous studies have shown that quakes that shake for a long time are more likely to produce a tsunami. Now Anthony Lomax, a consultant seismologist based in Mouans-Sartoux, France, and Alberto Michelini of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy, have developed a way to spot this signature quickly.

The pair studied the seismic waves from 76 underwater earthquakes. Sure enough, rumbles that produced high-frequency waves for more than 50 seconds had a high probability of generating a damaging tsunami wave. Using this information, they developed an algorithm to filter out quake duration from seismic data. If adopted in an early-warning system, "it could provide a warning within 10 to 15 minutes", says Lomax. The work will appear in Geophysical Research Letters.

"Used alongside other methods it could be promising," says Emile Okal, a seismologist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.

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Year 2036. A large asteroid is on a collision course with Earth. Unless it is stopped, it will crash into the Pacific Ocean, creating a devastating tsunami. What should we do?

We could blast the asteroid with a nuclear bomb, but that would risk shattering it into smaller pieces that could still threaten Earth. Or maybe we should try to force it off course by slamming into it with a heavy object - an unproven and therefore risky technique. Now there may be a third option: gently nudging the asteroid away from Earth without breaking it apart, either by exploding a nuclear device at a distance or zapping it with high-powered lasers.

Astronomers have found thousands of asteroids that pass near Earth's orbit, and a few of these are on trajectories that give them a small chance of hitting Earth. The most worrying is a 270-metre-wide asteroid named Apophis, which has a 1 in 45,000 chance of hitting us in 2036.

To investigate the best way to deflect this and other asteroids onto a harmless path, a team led by David Dearborn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California has modelled the impact of a nuclear explosion on an object's trajectory. Their virtual asteroid was 1 kilometre in diameter and made of rocky rubble loosely bound together by gravity, which is considered by many planetary scientists to be the most likely composition for small asteroids.

Thirty years before the asteroid was set to collide with Earth, a nuclear blast, equivalent to 100 kilotonnes of TNT, was set off 250 metres behind it. The nudge from the explosion increased its velocity by 6.5 millimetres per second, a slight change but enough for it to miss us.

The technique also reduced the risk of a break-up - just 1 per cent of the asteroid's material was dislodged by the blast, and of that only about 1 part in a million remained on a collision course with Earth. Dearborn adds that the technology for this method is already established, unlike for the use of a heavy object to shove the asteroid onto a different path - the "kinetic impactor" strategy. "Should an emergency arise, we should know that [the technology] is available, and we should have some idea of how to properly use it," he says.

He has now begun simulating the effect of nudging an asteroid with a smaller nuclear explosion - less than 1 kilotonne - 1 metre below its surface. This would reduce the device's weight, making it easier and quicker to launch. He will discuss the work next month at the 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference in Granada, Spain.

A less established and gentler approach would be to nudge the asteroid away from Earth using lasers. In this theory, being investigated by Massimiliano Vasile of the University of Glasgow in the UK and colleagues with funding from the European Space Agency, a fleet of eight or more spacecraft, each carrying a laser, would be sent to rendezvous with the asteroid. Hovering a few kilometres away, each craft would unfurl a 20-metre-wide mirror made of a flexible material such as Mylar. The mirror would focus the sun's rays onto the spacecraft's solar panels, powering the laser.

All eight lasers would then be simultaneously fired at a single spot on the asteroid's surface, vaporising that region and creating a plume of gas that should provide enough thrust to push the asteroid off course (see diagram). This relatively gentle nudging, over a period of months or years, would not break the asteroid up into any smaller pieces, the team say.

Vasile, who will also be presenting his idea at the conference, touts the flexibility and reliability of the approach. "You have a formation of satellites and if one breaks you have the others [for back-up]," he says. "And it's scalable, so if you have a bigger asteroid or you want to have a faster deflection then you add more spacecraft."

Whichever option is ultimately chosen, reliability will be essential for a task as critical as asteroid deflection, says Bill Ailor of the Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California, who is chairing next month's conference. "Launch vehicles fail at a rate of about 1 in 100, and new spacecraft might fail at the rate of 1 in 3, [which] has to be factored into the overall design of your deflection," he says. "We're in a sense betting the planet that we're going to make this work."

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In August 1996, molecular biologist Gary Ruvkun was about to reveal one of the biggest discoveries of his scientific career. His lab at Harvard Medical School had recently found a gene called age-1 that determines lifespan in roundworms. Their work offered the tantalising possibility that tinkering with molecular pathways might extend the lifespan of other organisms – and perhaps even humans.

Harvard sent out a press release and Ruvkun prepared for an onslaught of media attention. But it never came. Two days before his team's paper came out, scientists analysing a meteorite from Mars called ALH84001 made headlines worldwide. Then-US president Bill Clinton even got in on the announcement.

"My grad student leans in the door and says, 'They've just announced life on Mars,'" recalls Ruvkun. "That would really f--- us," Ruvkun replied, thinking his student was joking.

Scientists have since raised serious doubts about the existence of the purported fossilised microbes in the meteorite (see image).

But now, more than a decade after his work was overshadowed by news of possible life on Mars, Ruvkun has joined the hunt to find it. Moreover, he and his colleagues want to sequence its DNA.
Toehold for life

Today, Mars is a frozen, barren world. Ultraviolet light and energetic space particles stream in through its thin atmosphere, sterilising any life – at least as we know it – on its bone-dry surface.

But recent research suggests life might find a niche just below the surface, where liquid water could be widespread. The discovery of plumes of methane in the planet's atmosphere also hints at subsurface life, since some terrestrial microbes produce the gas.

Chemical signs of life can be ambiguous, but Ruvkun and his team hope to find its unequivocal signature by sending a DNA amplifier and sequencer to Mars in the next decade. They're betting that any life on the Red Planet shares an evolutionary heritage with life on Earth, and therefore contains a similar genetic code – a requirement that other scientists say is too narrowly focused, since Martian life may have evolved independently and therefore may have very different chemistry.

"This is a pure jackpot scheme. You either discover the most important thing for a long time, or you discover nothing," says Ruvkun, who in 2008 won the Lasker Award, an honour shared by 75 scientists who later went on to nab a Nobel.

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Interest in hurricane mitigation has peaked since Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans in 2005, and any means of limiting the damage wrought by these huge storms would be welcomed by governments and vulnerable populations alike.

Now an Israeli team says it has developed a way to take the sting out of the storms. Their new patent application says seeding hurricanes with smoke particles could lower wind speeds enough to mitigate their destructive potential.

A hurricane's destructive potential is proportionally related to the strongest winds inside it, and only a small reduction in wind speed is needed to dramatically reduce the damage it causes.

Hurricanes derive their immense power from warm waters on the surface of the sea. As the water evaporates, it rises into the hurricane and eventually condenses and falls as rain, releasing its latent heat energy as it does so - a process known as "heat cycling".

Daniel Rosenfeld and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem say injecting smoke into the lower parts of a hurricane causes water vapour to condense at a lower altitude than usual, and form droplets that are too small to fall as rain.

Instead these are swept into higher and more peripheral regions of the storm, eventually reaching a point where they freeze. This provides an injection of energy on the edges of the storm that destabilises its destructive centre and causes a lowering of windspeeds.

At least, it works that way in Rosenfeld's computer-simulated hurricanes. The team has not tried the idea in the wild yet.

They have, though, calculated how much smoke might be needed to pull off their trick: about 10 cargo aircraft could carry enough material to generate the smoke particles needed to seed a single hurricane.

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What similarities will alien life forms have to living things here on Earth? We won't know until we find some, but now there is evidence that at least the basic building blocks will be the same.

All terrestrial life forms share the same 20 amino acids. Biochemists have managed to synthesise 10 of them in experiments that simulate lifeless prebiotic environments, using proxies for lightning, ionising radiation from space, or hydrothermal vents to provide the necessary energy. Amino acids are also found inside meteorites formed before Earth was born.

Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, point out that all these experiments produced a subset of the same 10 amino acids and calculate that these 10 require the least amount of energy to form.
This, they argue, suggests that if alien life exists it probably has the same 10 amino acids at its core.

Universal code?

They show how the other 10 may have been added one by one as early life on Earth became more sophisticated. More controversially, they go on to argue that this process dictated the evolution of the genetic code, suggesting it too is universal.

Darren Griffin, a geneticist at the University of Kent, UK, suggests Higgs and Pudritz are pushing their conclusions too far.

"Laws of physics govern the universe, and it seems reasonable to suggest that there are laws of molecular biology that may also be universal," he says. "But it seems unlikely that the very same genetic code would arise on another planet, even if there are similarities in the fundamental molecules such as amino acids."

Journal reference : Physics arXiv preprint

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